The importance of tourism for job creation and poverty reduction in rural areas of developing and least developed countries (LDCs) should not be underestimated. Tourism is increasingly recognized as a major source of economic growth, especially in poor countries.
Its value chain and its signiﬁ cant connections to other sectors such as agriculture, construction, utilities and transport can contribute to poverty reduction.
With regard to the supply chain in the sector, one job in the core tourism industry indirectly generates 1.5 additional jobs in the related economy. In 2010 the sector’s global economy accounted for more than 235 million jobs, equivalent to about 8 per cent of the overall number of jobs (direct and indirect), or one in every 12.3 jobs. In 2010 travel and tourism were estimated to have generated about 9.3 per cent of global GDP, while tourism investments were estimated at 9.2 per cent of total global investments.
The ILO’s mission is to promote decent work within the context of poverty reduction. The ILO’s Decent Work Agenda directly relates to poverty reduction through an integrated approach that has four pillars: rights at work, employment, social protection and social dialogue.
The theme of this toolkit is the ways in which tourism can be a driver of poverty reduction.
The toolkit outlines the background to poverty reduction approaches and how the ILO is involved within the context of decent work and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Recent developments in tourism and a vision for an inclusive, pro-poor tourism industry are summarized.
While local/rural communities and small enterprises are the primary target group, the toolkit is directed towards a wide range of actors that share an interest and are involved in reducing poverty through tourism. Within this framework, it aims to be useful for:
– national government representatives;
– local/rural authorities representatives;
– local/rural community organizations’ representatives;
– representatives of employers’ organizations;
– trade union representatives;
– representatives of support institutions (e.g. NGOs); and
– representatives of the local/rural tourism industry.
The toolkit is organized around ﬁve modular chapters.
1. The tourism industry and poverty reduction – general overview
2. Human resources, decent work and social dialogue
3. Promotion and marketing in tourism
4. Tourism market
5. Tourism business